Therefore, friction stir integration of Mg-rich islands in the surface of titanium is potentially a promising approach for the surface modification of the implants for biomedical applications. Masoud Rezaei performed the surface modification of titanium plates and characterized the samples.
Elnaz Tamjid designed the experiments, conducted research, analyzed the data, and prepared the manuscript with the help of others. Ali Dinari performed biocompatibility assays with the help of Masoud Rezaei. All authors reviewed the manuscript.
Electronic supplementary material. Supplementary information accompanies this paper at Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Sci Rep. Published online Oct Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Elnaz Tamjid, Email: ri. Corresponding author. Received Jul 17; Accepted Sep 6. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Besides the wide applications of titanium and its alloys for orthopedic and biomedical implants, the biocompatible nature of titanium has emerged various surface modification techniques to enhance its bioactivity and osteointegration with living tissues.
Introduction Titanium and its alloys have various applications in biomedical devices mainly in orthopedic and dentistry due to their superior mechanical strength, toughness, biocompatibility, and corrosion resistance 1 — 5. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Table 1 Effect of FSI processing parameters on the thickness of the deformed layer and the average grain size of titanium without and with the addition MgH 2 powder.
Figure 2. Surface porosification In order to form nanopores on the surface of titanium implants, the Mg-rich islands were leached out by short chemical etching. Figure 3. Surface hardness Mechanical surface treatment of titanium plates by the rotating tool plastically deforms the metal matrix and refines its grain structure. Figure 4. Cell studies The results of biocompatibility studies on the surface modified samples in L and human RBC lines are shown in Fig.
Figure 5. Hemocompatibility Blood compatibility assay was performed according to the hemolysis assay standard procedure Compliance of ethical standards Human blood was obtained from normal donors by vein puncture, while the consent was obtained from all of participants as written. Conclusions In this work, a new procedure was introduced to integrate magnesium-rich islands in the surface layer of titanium implants. Electronic supplementary material Electronic Supporting Information 2.
Author Contributions Masoud Rezaei performed the surface modification of titanium plates and characterized the samples. Notes Competing Interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Footnotes Electronic supplementary material Supplementary information accompanies this paper at References 1.
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Zhang J, et al. New horizon for high performance Mg-based biomaterial with uniform degradation behavior: Formation of stacking faults. Doble, M. Nano-hydroxyapatite reinforced AZ31 magnesium alloy by friction stir processing: A solid state processing for biodegradable metal matrix composites. Biodegradable magnesium scaffolds: Part 1: appropriate inflammatory response.
Journal of biomedical materials research Part A. Cheng, M. A novel open-porous magnesium scaffold with controllable microstructures and properties for bone regeneration. Yamasaki Y, et al. Synthesis of functionally graded MgCO3 apatite accelerating osteoblast adhesion. Journal of biomedical materials research. Zhang S, et al. GT Investments Local business. GT Inzenjering Local business. GT Irrigation Landscape company.
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State utility Tenaga has 68 GW from renewables build MW been asked to come up with an alternative solution to replace the coal plant proposed plant in Lahad Datu. Generation capacity will resources. Much of the district, Thai Binh northern Corporation plans to expand and convert its Limay diesel power have to increase five fold to keep economically attractive wind Province, the two-unit, MW plant in the Philippines from the pace.
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The EPA estimates biggest wind farm in Brazil, Electricity are in discussions over a the end of the governments its two sets of rules would affect according to Noticias Financieras. Some clean-air advocates de San Franciscos first entry Nicaragua: State energy company Until now, the appointed reportedly worried the bodys rules into the wind power market. Chile has set up a training operator of the Itaipu dam, Cooperative ODEC has pulled Dominion Virginia Power agreement with France as one has received seven offers for out of the project to build a third owns the remaining ODEC has an Dominion Virginias Under the deal, 17 Chilean interest in the two existing parent group said that it is future energy experts will be US: The Nuclear Regulatory reactors at North Anna and takes not changing its position on a trained in France from Commission is to review GE a corresponding share of the potential new unit at North Four reactors, about MWe Hitachi Nuclear Energys application to renew the design electricity they generate.
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ONs UK grid company to work for in Germany, within the category of firms with more than employees. ONs business, Central the competitive business of are to be privatized in the cash to create one of the largest Networks, is the UKs second- power generation. Units with first phase of process aimed at transferring 16 GW in capacity.
It would add to but are already forecast to make its merger with Allegheny of debt in the deal, which is PPLs existing pool of 2. GE: The firm has completed RWE expects nuclear tax and stalled RWE to invest its purchase from Wind Tower Systems of technology aimed at prices to shrink profit by 30 per cent m in East enabling taller towers and cutting Europe, Turkey installation and transport costs.
German utility RWE expects its tax on her countrys nuclear stations. RWE said m in central and eastern Power Supply Company and Bloomberg reports that German it plans to reduce debt by selling Europe, including Turkey, by Jaypee Karcham Hydro Corp to Chancellor Angela Merkel wants assets to raise as much as 8bn by , said Andreas Radmacher, consolidate the group's power to raise 2.
Turkey unit, reported Bloomberg. Japan Steel Works: The company The figure included a m plans to start building larger, Nigeria privatization sparks interest investment in a MW gas fired metre-diameter wind power plant in Denizil in Turkey, turbines with a 2. The first turbine is due to be built by the summer of Nigeria expects to need in the joint venture. RWE also consultancy is to open an office said the Nigerian government.
Rosengren, who is based together to design and build digital generation models to be fully has bought a per cent stake in Shanghai, works as senior control systems and nuclear reactors. The design was recently four hydro plants. Its total installed with a MWe integrated pressurized water reactor, which Lockheed Martin will also provide recommended for approval capacity is about 18 MW. EZs applies lessons learned from its GEH with related simulation and by the Advisory Committee acquisition is in line with a policy AP plant under construction training support, as well as services on Reactor Safeguards of focusing on its core businesses in in China, said the company.
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The bottom line: ultimate plant performance, outstanding reliability and optimized outcomes. Talk to the Siemens experts and find out how you can gear up for tomorrows energy challenges while making the most of your assets today. Answers for energy. Heather Johnstone, Chief Editor. Source: ABB. Since the first project commissioned in , its HVDC Light technology has evolved through three generations. This innovation into the receiving AC network.
With an HVDC system, the power flow can be controlled rapidly and HVDC Light is easy to install and offers a number of environmental accurately in terms of both power level and direction. This capability is benefits, including the use of underground or subsea power links, neutral often used to improve the performance and efficiency of the connected electromagnetic fields, oil-free cables and compact converter stations.
The AC networks. This was a link between the Swedish mainland platforms, enabling city centre in-feeds and more recently the integration and the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea. The power rating was 20 of offshore wind farms. MW and the transmission voltage kV. In future, this technology is likely to play an important part in the There was a significant improvement in HVDC technology in when development of DC grids.
This reduced the size and complexity of HVDC converter stations substantially. HVDC Light converters today are based on CTL cascaded two-level converter topology, eliminating the need for AC filters and enabling Initially HVDC Light had around 3 per cent a more compact converter design with a low level of harmonics and losses per converter station, while in the audible noise.
The latest generation of converter stations, comprising two MW and kV converters, has a footprint of metres by metres, which is substantially smaller than previous generations. The terminals can be connected to different points in the same AC network or to different AC networks. The resulting DC grids can be radial, meshed or a combination of both. Multi-terminal HVDC Light systems are particularly attractive for integration of large-scale renewable energy sources such as offshore wind farms and for reinforcement of interconnected regional AC grids.
A DC regional grid is defined as a system that comprises a single protection zone. Such a grid can be realized today with proven technology and DC breakers to isolate the faulty part of the grid are not needed. There are, however, some regulatory issues that need to be addressed.
An interregional DC grid is defined as a system that needs several protection zones. The power balance in a grid is maintained if the power input is equal to the power output, including losses. The power-balance indicator in a DC system is the DC voltage if there is surplus power the DC voltage increases and if there is a deficit it decreases.
PEi - March www. The powering of Norwegian oil company Statoils Troll A gas production platform via a DC link from the is the first time an offshore platform has been powered by such a link originating on land Source: ABB. To keep the voltage at a pre-set value, i.
The rectifier is used to control the DC growth in Europe last year. According to the European Wind Energy voltage and the inverters are used to control the power to the pre-set values Association EWEA , new offshore wind turbines were installed, at the two terminals respectively. Approximately MW of new capacity, worth in the DC voltage controller will act depending on the change and reduce or the region of 2.
In an average with 16 projects either in operation or in progress. Examples of those in year these turbines are expected to produce Island EWEA research shows that 19 GW of offshore wind capacity is Troll A, Norway: a km subsea cable to feed power to an offshore currently consented and could generate Global wind power installations increased by This is particularly important farms located in the DolWin1 wind farm cluster the MW for wind farms, where the variation in wind speed can cause severe Borkum West II wind farm, plus future wind farms in the North Sea voltage fluctuations.
At kV this will be the highest voltage level of kV high-voltage AC grid on the German mainland. The link has a extruded cable ever used for HVDC. These will feed fuel based generation. This voltage will then be Germany currently meets in the region of 8 per cent of its electricity stepped up to kV AC before reaching the HVDC Light converter requirements with wind power and expects to double that by The latest HVDC Light technology also has the potential to become Here the AC power is converted to kV DC and fed into two the preferred system for power in-feeds to cities for strengthening km subsea cables, which then continue into two km land power networks in areas where new overhead lines are not a practical cables to the land-based converter station at Diele in Germany.
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Coal Power Plant Efficiency. L ocated near the village of the same name in Brandenburg on low nitrous oxide combustion and the electrofilters were modernized. Half a decade later, decommissioning of the three old six MW units. It is the second-largest brown coal power plant chimney stacks and commissioning of flue gas desulphurization for in operation in Germany and is owned by Swedish utility Vattenfall. In future, despite lower fuel In the same decade, one modernization ensued which achieved consumption, the six units will supply a total of MW instead of increased reliability and power.
Block E began operation in MW an increase equivalent to almost half a power block. The low-pressure sections in the other blocks also underwent to improve their energy efficiency, increase their output and extend systematic modernization. Alstom Power replaces older As a result, not only have LP turbine failures been avoided turbine components including complete high, intermediate IP and their geometry and the medium makes LP final stages particularly low-pressure LP turbines.
Just three years after that, in , major conversion between and when Alstom replaced the high-pressure measures were implemented. Wear was not the main reason for this; the Their key focus was environmental protection. Within the scope of actual deciding factor was the relationship of investment to efficiency the comprehensive revision, the boilers in Block A were converted for gains, which proved to be particularly attractive.
Measuring and precision tasks: mechanical wear, strength and form retention are checked by the service technicians on the LP turbines in intervals of around two years Source: Vattenfall. The power plant is currently midway through a phase in which plant components, all steam parameters including temperature and all intermediate pressure turbines are being replaced, which will mass flow at the three extraction points were to remain the same.
The original impulse Alstom Power brought together impulse and reaction steam turbine machines were produced by the Leningrad Metal Works LMZ , technologies. This capability allows retrofit solutions to be supplied St. Within the scope of the forthcoming revisions, these utilizing reaction technology, impulse technology or a combination turbines are being upgraded using the latest technology. The results of both, irrespective of the original blading technology, to provide an of the implementation in the first two blocks have been encouraging.
It was subjected to a replacement. To ensure that the new design, which is equipped major overhaul that involved the inspection of all turbines. There was with more stages, fits into the existing outer casing, the inner casing little to do on the comparatively new high-pressure turbine, and work including the blades were renovated as well as the rotor.
Complementing this, the outer casing was reworked, as it plant for reworking. Because the damage was discovered at the start had been slightly deformed by decades of thermal stress. The new IP steam path was designed to achieve maximum performance The intermediate pressure turbine, which had completed around within the constraints of a given outer shell of an existing turbine.
Advanced 70 operating hours since its last overhaul, was to be replaced 3D reaction type blading was applied to improve the aerodynamic anyway. As the rotors and blade path exhibited advanced wear efficiency while maintaining enhanced mechanical properties. The rotor in the first stage area, the retrofit made sense for this reason alone. To ensure the increase in power had no impact on other power 3D reaction type blading also benefits from small fillet radii at the.
Braden Systems for Gas Turbines root and the top area of the blade profile, as well as from thin trailing edges, all of which contributes to high efficiency figures. Castellated ribs machined into the fixed and moving blades integral shrouding in conjunction with sealing strips caulked into the outer surface of the rotor and inside surface of the cylinder respectively form effective labyrinth type sealing.
Thanks to the new design, improved blade geometry with modern Inlet Filter House 3D reaction blades, as well as an optimized sealing arrangement for both the stationary as well as the moving blade rows, the IP turbine is now 3. That equates to the amount of coal carried by 50 coal trains, each of 16 wagons, from the neighbouring open cast mine to the plant. The reduced coal consumption also means a drop in emissions; the IP retrofit spares the environment around 46 tonnes of CO2 annually, illustrating the environmental benefits associated with retrofit.
Diverter Damper The modernizations performed over the last two decades have Exhaust Bypass increased the block output of MW by approximately 35 MW and the net efficiency to around 36 per cent. Whilst this value may not sound particularly high in comparison with todays new plants, it actually represents very significant progress, given that the s design boilers limit the steam parameters and thus the efficiency.
The prize honours the work of the strong Alstom team in the Comprehensive Retrofit Solutions major overhaul of the MW turbine set in Block D and the minor Bradens full array of engineers structural, overhaul of the set in Block C. Braden also the contractually agreed efficiency values. The work performed on installs complete intake and exhaust systems. Block A was essentially the same as that done on Block D the previous year. The team pooled their experience and paid particular attention Air Filtration Bypass Stacks to the low pressure turbine.
It is planned to retrofit unit C Expansion Joints Systems in summer Over the next few years, the remaining three blocks will also be subjected to major overhauls, over the course of which they will be equipped with new IP turbines. Then, there should then be little to stand in the way of economic and N. Mingo Rd. Tel: Fax: Email: Sales braden. Ultra-supercritical USC technology is one answer to prolonging the reign of King Coal, the most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel on Earth.
As we look beyond USC, PEi considers what challenges lie ahead for the power plant workhorse, the steam turbine. Additionally, meeting in , a group of 40 power generators and improved plant efficiency can help offset the costs of environmental manufacturers agreed to investigate the potential of nickel-based programmes such as CCS, making such technologies more viable. GE typically considers USC to mean a combination steam parameters in the range of bar and C a barrier that of temperature over C and pressure over bar, Stagnitti had seemed impenetrable for some time.
In any case, Now, though technically feasible, the world has yet to see a commercial USC conditions push the boundaries of pressure and temperature for demonstration coal fired plant capable of operating at C and the steam turbine. And there is little apparent market appetite for the higher capital costs If consensus exists in the industry, however, it is that transition to higher though manufacturers are reluctant to put a true figure on them that such levels of USC in terms of greater temperatures and pressures represents a move is expected to bring.
It is a natural continuation There is no doubt the European Unions target of a reduction in of our, and possibly other companies development path. GE has a long greenhouse gas emissions of 20 per cent by will require an eclectic history of advancement in steam turbine USC technology, including, mix of technologies, including the replacement of older, inefficient power in the first F C steam turbine in the USA and the plants with new highly efficient units.
While the selection of fuel for a new most efficient for its time, 40 per cent. In , came the most efficient power plant is increasingly driven by CO2 emissions, this is spurring all the USC turbine at Until carbon capture and storage CCS becomes commercially GE continues to invest in fossil steam turbine platforms ranging from available, increasing plant efficiency remains the only route to reducing small MW designs to large MW configurations.
Ongoing CO2 emissions of coal fired power plants. Two of the main methods of work includes advancing state-of-the-art designs for turbine systems and improving steam power plant efficiency are steam cycle optimization and components such as rotating and stationary airfoils, rotors, casings, valves enhancing the behaviour of the steam turbine itself.
Also, one of the key enablers for USC conditions is development Today, coal fired power plants with USC steam cycle parameters and of speciality materials that have enhanced capabilities to sustain elevated wet cooling tower can achieve net efficiencies of 45 per cent for hard coal temperature and pressures without sacrificing life and reliability.
However, cooling is undesirable But what of the move to that magic 50 per cent efficiency? Does it because of complexity and a negative impact on cycle efficiency, says represent a quantum leap a leap of faith, some would say in USC Stagnitti. This is where new materials come in. Better materials will permit technology and particularly in steam turbine design?
This in turn will lead to more efficient and flexible turbines for costs, reduces fuel consumption and cuts emissions, says James M. Stagnitti, our customers. Small on size, big on power. Impressive size to power ratio. High in power, yet low in mass, the Rolls-Royce Trent 60 a steam turbine. Trent 60 also sports the twin Rolls-Royce keeps the same dimensions whatever its power output. With an engine weighing less than 15 tons, Trent 60 arrives For mechanical drive and power generation applications, ready to produce 58MW with Dry Low Emissions, 64MW with onshore and oshore, Trent 60 provides the muscle for Wet Low Emissions and up to MW when operating with enduring protability.
Thats what the manufacturers are doing to make their products commercially attractive and competitive. In the case of USC, we need to have the boiler and steam turbine technology that can work at those higher temperatures. But were really some years away from achieving commercial level operations.
A key impetus will be emissions legislation. I think there is a greater sense of urgency and need in Europe because of the geopolitical structure, in the sense that you have a number of countries, all of which are looking for fuel diversity in their electricity production regime.
Coal and lignite are plentiful in a number of countries in Europe and there are issues around gas supply. So I think there is more of a sense of urgency in Europe to find A steam turbine for the Neurath power plant in Germany Source: Alstom solutions for cleaner coal than maybe in the US.
A strong material supplier base is critical to construction of longer final stage buckets for increased exhaust area provide the large forgings, castings and fabrications required for steam per exhaust flow. Improvements in efficiency have been brought about turbines. Advances in machining and joining technologies are required. It largely in two ways. GE is part of and leakage losses as the steam expands through the turbine have been a consortium working on a US Department of Energy initiative developing achieve.
Secondly, there have been improvements in thermodynamic F C materials. Other programmes are targeting different efficiency by increasing the temperature and pressure at which heat is temperature levels. This is where USC comes in. Trevor Bailey is general manager of GEs steam turbine product line.
He Siemens is focusing a great deal of effort on higher plant efficiencies sees the higher efficiencies offered by USC and the viability of CCS as two in preparing for the coal fired power station of the future, which should parts of a package that will underwrite coals future, both from an economic use as little fuel as possible in order to keep atmospheric emissions to a and environmental standpoint.
Thats really what drives this need for higher minimum. Crucially, the steam temperature needs to be increased from efficiency, he says. Only then will it become Higher plant efficiencies are a goal the world over, not just in Europe or possible to achieve 50 per cent efficiency. Collaborative programmes elsewhere, including in the Far East, Temperature is the key factor, says Ernst-Wilhelm Pfitzinger, the project are looking into developing materials that can operate at the much higher manager in charge of developing the C turbine in Mlheim.
There temperatures and pressures that USC progression represents. Above C, we understanding the operating conditions and environment in which the have to use new materials anyway; traditional metals just wouldnt be able material has to live. Materials have to undergo strength tests, creep to withstand the temperatures, says Pfitzinger.
And we want to make as characteristic tests, and satisfy a whole array of issues if we are to be able much use as possible of these materials, so were going to go straight to to control a piece of machinery like a steam turbine and satisfy ourselves that C. The higher pressure is necessary to optimize efficiency.
The objective is So its about playing with different material combinations. And you are to raise efficiency by four percentage points over that at C, and to really using base materials and small percentages sometimes fractions of cut coal consumption by 67 per cent, thus also reducing CO2 emissions.
Once thats done, the materials issue goes mix of high-strength metals like nickel and chromium, with a pinch of iron. After a painstaking process they cost five to ten. Your idea of a successful hunt doesnt involve replacement parts. You can now source all your aeroderivative and heavy IGT parts from one reliable provider. Make one phone call, pay one invoice and spend more time doing what you love. That is not exactly peanuts our projects in Germany like the RDK8 plant in Karlsruhe and Neurath near in a turbine requiring some tonnes of such alloys.
The key issues for the steam turbine at these very high pressures To reduce material costs, the turbine need not be entirely of nickel alloy, and temperatures include how to keep your cylinder round. Being round but can be composed of different alloys, depending on the temperatures is very important for clearance control and ensuring the machine doesnt different areas are subjected to. For example, the inner and outer housings distort through high levels of stresses during transients and so-forth.
Again, for a long time weve had welded rotor temperature of C. In addition, the 1 metre-thick shaft can be forged construction which meant that we could have a different material on the in several pieces, with the nickel alloy only employed in the hottest area.
On average, coal fired power plants the lower conditions lower down. Weve continued to use that concept. In doing so, they release We use more creep resistant and more oxidation resistant materials [where between g and g of CO2 into the air, or some 8 billion tonnes necessary]. The industry is responding. To understand the real a comparable power plant for a consortium of 27 municipal utilities on challenges, he says, you need to step slightly away from the cycle question a site at Lnen in northern Germany.
The plant is scheduled to go into and focus on flexibility. The key issues facing the market right now, with all operation by next year. However, with an efficiency of around 46 per cent, the renewables coming onto the grid, are to do with start-up and shutdown even these power plants fall short of the Holy Grail of 50 per cent.
Such a power Walker. This is where we and other companies are focused on in terms plant would consume only g of coal per kWh, and thus produce only of technology development. So far as the C turbines are g of CO2. Such a step would have significant consequences because concerned which are just coming online at the moment these machines each percentage point in improved efficiency, if applied to all coal burning do represent a moderate step in technology, so we cant be sure that power plants, would translate into an estimated million tonnes of CO2 there will be absolutely no issues when they first operate.
However, we emissions mitigated each year. The step to C in order to get that 2. It is just somehow beyond supercritical. But even then, for Alstom it would be an evolution Does the industry have a specific meaning for it? I think the answer today of the turbine design and not a revolution. Alstom already has its design is no. People use it, but it doesnt have an agreed definition. In Alstom for ready for a C at MW size.
What seems above C at boiler outlet, but this is not very meaningful in technical to control the economics of a C machine is neither the turbine nor the terms. So when we develop steam turbines or other components we refer boiler its the cost of the main steam pipe from the top of the boiler down to a steam class by its pressure and temperature because that gives us to the turbine.
It has to be flexible while carrying full steam temperature and an exact meaning. Ive also heard USC used by other organizations for pressure. If the main steam pipe has to be made of a nickel alloy then you [conceptual] plants up to C, for example, and thats purely arbitrary. While the progression to higher temperature and pressure will bring Whether or not the high cost of nickel alloy main steam pipe negates efficiency gains with less fuel and CO2, Walker says these come with both the benefits of higher efficiency will depend on the market price of fuel a higher capital cost and some technical consequences.
It is a technical and CO2, Walker says. One of Alstoms strategic areas is CO2 capture challenge to give you the same level of flexibility in terms of start-up and and weve done a lot of work on this. A more economical solution might shutdown times, particularly, since the higher steam conditions tend to lead be a C plant with carbon capture with the same amount of CO2 as to worse load cycle fatigue.
It depends on how capital cost balances Nevertheless for Alstom, at least says Walker, and just as for GE, moving out against the cost of CO2 and fuel. The market conditions are changing up to higher steam values represents merely a natural progression. Alstom rapidly today, with the cost of international fuels currently being very high has a design that we have used in the supercritical range that is very robust and extremely volatile.
Similarly there is a lot of uncertainty on the future and that is relatively easily scalable to develop to these higher conditions. I personally Thats not to say that developing it has not been hard work, but it was believe C power plants will only be built once there is a very clear not a quantum leap.
These are the machines that weve supplied to many of regulatory framework that would justify the capital expenditure. Efficiency versus flexibility: Advances in gas turbine technology An update on the latest advances in gas turbine technology including the new breed of high-efficiency gas turbines, such as the Siemens Energys SGTH turbine, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries J-series machine and GE Energys H System, as well as the more modest but equally important aeroderivative industrial gas turbines.
O ver the past 20 years gas turbines configured as combined- turbine manufacturers are expecting these technologies to contribute cycle power generation units have become one of the 20 per cent to 30 per cent of grid capacity in Europe by , so the mainstays of the power generation industry, particularly in combined-cycle plant, along with energy storage and hydropower, will the liberalized electricity markets.
This popularity has been driven by a be required to provide the main back-up for this intermittent capacity. In order to obtain the at least part of this period, the low cost of gas turbines and the speed flexibility that is required for this type of service, some efficiency must be with which gas turbine-based power plants can be installed. The main manufacturers are responding to this by offering Another key attraction of the combined-cycle power plant is energy complementary heavy gas turbine lines, one for ultimate efficiency and conversion efficiency.
A good modern plant can approach 60 per one that offers greater flexibility. Even so, high efficiency remains the cent fuel to electricity conversion efficiency while the best coal fired equivalent of the space race within the gas turbine world, though one plants will only achieve around 47 per cent efficiency.
Although During this same period the power generation market has seen several have now come close, that goal has yet to be achieved. Major names such as Westinghouse and ABB have carbon emissions, both of which are important concerns for plant disappeared from the large gas turbine marketplace and today the operators today.
Achieving high efficiency requires optimization across only companies manufacturing gas turbines in the MW the whole plant, including gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator range are GE, Alstom, Siemens, Ansaldo Energia and Mitsubishi HRSG and steam turbine. Increasing one or both can be used to increase Gas turbine design has advanced enormously in the last 20 years and efficiency.
For this, all three components play their part. In the past higher efficiency was the primary aim The optimization of compressor design can be used to provide a of gas turbine development. Around , typical combined-cycle higher pressure at the turbine inlet and this is being exploited in high efficiency was 50 per cent.
By the best installations were above efficiency designs. Thus GE has increased the gas turbine pressure 59 per cent. Efficiency remains important to all manufacturers, but there has been The same pressure ratio is used by MHI in its J-series, but the higher a significant shift towards products that can operate more flexibility turbine inlet temperature results in efficiency in excess of 61 per cent. Meanwhile, Alstoms turbines have operated likely to be for intermediate service and to provide ancillary services.
A significant part of this shift is due to the increasing importance The combustion chamber controls the temperature of the gas entering of variable output renewable capacity such as wind and solar the turbine so changes here can affect overall efficiency. While raising power to grids across the world. As the proportion grows, and flame temperature is relatively straightforward compared to other.
Gas Turbine Technology Advances. Source: Siemens changes, combustor designs have tended to stabilize and all the main companies now have proven designs which they utilize across their turbine ranges. This leaves the turbine as the component where the greatest gains in efficiency are likely to be made, though gains here are becoming hard to win. Modern computer design has led to the optimization of blade profiles to gain maximum efficiency so there is little that can be done there.
Thus designers are forced to exploit the one area left to them, turbine gas inlet temperature. Since thermodynamic efficiency depends on the overall temperature drop across the turbine, raising the inlet temperature should equate to an increase in efficiency. The combustion gas temperature for GEs H-class gas turbine, one of the 60 per cent contenders, puts it in the C class, roughly C higher than the companys F-class machines, which constitute the main large frame GE turbines in use today.
Inlet temperature of the Siemens new H-class machine, which is also hoping to achieve above 60 per cent efficiency, has not been released. However, both are likely to be topped by MHI. The latters J-series turbine boasts an inlet temperature of C, C above that of the same companys H-series machines and higher than any other Siemens expects its H-class gas turbine to achieve 60 per cent efficiency in combined-cycle mode product to date.
This machine, which is being tested in Japan today, is being marketed as capable of 61 per cent efficiency. At these temperatures, the materials used to manufacture gas turbine components are being pushed to their limits. Blades, vanes and other hot gas path components are commonly made from nickel-based alloys cast in single crystal form to increase strength and resistance to fracture and deformation. Although not by MHI for their large machines.
Single crystal blades do exhibit improved properties and MHI has used them successfully in their small units, but the single crystal form is expensive and has associated repair challenges so, says MHI, do not justify their use in large frames. These alloys will start to melt at anywhere between C and C.
In order to prevent the consequent damage at the temperatures experienced within the gas turbine inlet, these components must be coated with thermal barrier coatings TBCs and then cooled internally so that the actual metal does not approach its melting point. Current TBCs are based on ceramics that are typically made from zirconia doped with various other elements to create a heat resistant layer with very low thermal conductivity that can maintain a C temperature drop to the metal beneath.
The TBC slows the rate at which heat is transferred to the metal beneath. However in order to prevent the temperature rising too high, the component must also be cooled internally, either with air or steam. Air cooling is the most common type in use. This requires moderately hot air which is extracted from the gas turbine and cycled to cool the hot path components. However, since this air is stolen from the gas turbine it has the effect Mitsubishis J-series is designed for combined-cycle efficiency of about 61 per cent LHV Source: MHI of lowering overall efficiency.
Steam cooling, in which steam from the steam cycle of the combined-cycle plant is used to cool the components internally does not have the same efficiency cost. This is the solution both. This requires a higher gas turbine outlet temperature and so must adopted by MHI, and by GE for their high-efficiency G-class and be balanced against any fall in gas turbine efficiency. H-class machines. However Siemens are using air cooling for their latest A higher overall gas turbine operating temperature will help raise H-class turbine and Alstoms turbines are also air cooled.
MHI is taking part in appear to be approaching here. The HRSG design will also play a part a Japanese government project which has the aim of increasing the in overall efficiency, while the type of HRSG may also affect another turbine inlet temperature to C.
The J-series turbine has already critical operational criteria for modern combined-cycle plants, flexibility. A mode is between 38 per cent and 42 per cent. Higher efficiency can flexible plant must be able to start-up quickly, so time from start-up to be achieved. It must be able to ramp both up and down with a simple cycle efficiency of 46 per cent.
However, this is at the to meet different load demand levels with ease and speed. Efficiency expense of a low gas outlet temperature which makes it less suitable for must be maintained, not only at full load but at part load down to combined-cycle applications.
Emissions must also be kept low when operating at part load. This avoids be made within the steam bottoming cycle of a combined-cycle plant. One of the the two cycles effectively. Maintaining and temperature of the working fluid, in this case steam. Raising the the cooling steam is vital during ramps but requires slower ramp speeds overall flue gas input temperature to the HRSG can be used to increase due to the complexity and overall integration of gas and steam cycles.
However, abandoning steam cooling is likely to result in a lower GE claims the new 7FA will be capable of 75 per cent output in ten gas turbine inlet temperature and hence lower overall efficiency. This is minutes during hot start from an overnight shutdown and a ramp rate of part of the reason why some companies offer more than one product 30 MW per minute. Overall gas turbine output is MW. GE also line, one using steam cooling for high efficiency and another with air has a 7FB gas turbine, launched several years ago to take advantage cooling for greatest operational flexibility.
Two of these are to be installed at a Electric Power plant and two in California. It markets At the same time the company has recently launched a new version its gas turbines as part of integrated combined-cycle packages and this of is 60Hz 7FA turbine which features Several KA26 units up is to decouple the gas turbine from the steam turbine bottoming in Europe, including the KA26 plant at Emsland in Germany, have cycle.
This enables the gas turbine to start quickly without the need achieved above 59 per cent efficiency and the company believes to hold output while the steam cycle components heat up. It has also 60 per cent is potentially possible. In addition, the gas turbine will typically maintain NOx emissions at below 15 ppm when operating at this load point and even below due to sequential combustion. In addition, the KA26 is capable of being parked at a very low load, typically in the range of 20 per cent plant load with close to baseload emissions, as an alternative to shutting down completely and with lower fuel consumption than running at higher minimum loads.
From this very low load point, the KA26 is able to ramp back up to full load within minutes, Stevens said. As with GE, the company hopes the KA26 and KA24 products will appeal to utilities and power plant operators who expect to operate in both the power delivery and ancillary services markets. Meanwhile, MHI has pinned its colours squarely on high efficiency.
Its high efficiency J-series turbine builds on experience with the companys G-class machines which use steam cooling, though only in stationary parts such as combustion liners and blade rings. Toshishige Ai of MHI says the quest for high efficiency has particular value in Japan; the country has to import all its fossil fuel so efficiency is increasing maintenance intervals and dual-fuel switchover operation recognized as extremely important from both a cost and an emissions has been improved.
However, the company has no current plans to perspective. Nevertheless, MHI has recently acknowledged that develop its own 60 per cent plus efficiency combined-cycle system yet. As for the J-series, six units have already been While the largest heavy duty gas turbines and combined-cycle plants sold, with the first starting up in An important player here is Rolls-Royce, which has recently gas turbine with a generating capacity of MW, which is expected introduced a new version of its RB industrial gas turbine called the to exceed 60 per cent efficiency in combined-cycle configuration.
Single shaft combined-cycle output is MW. However, and six of these have been ordered by Florida Light and Power with the company believes that uprating to 50 MW will be possible in the the first start-up in The 44 MW, WLE version of this turbine will have an open Meanwhile, Siemens is also paying attention to flexibility with its cycle efficiency of This and will be available in with the 38 MW version available for has led to the introduction of features such as a once-through HRSG to delivery in Adding flexibility.
In this case it claims the capability of reaching full power a stack damper helps reduce the rate of heat loss during shutdown, from start-up in ten minutes. Stated NOx level is 25 vppm. According to Siemens, two The ambitious Japanese National Project for high efficiency gas turbine plants, one at Pont sur Sambre, France and the other at Irsching, development is aiming to develop the technology to achieve a turbine Germany have demonstrated the capability of reaching full load after with an inlet temperature of C and an efficiency of 62 per cent overnight shutdown in 30 minutes, with efficiencies of over 58 per cent to 65 per cent in combined-cycle operation.
Both targets still remain out of reach in commercial machines, Siemens has been looking carefully at grid support requirements too, although MHI appears to be approaching both in its latest product. Ansaldo Energia, whose turbines are based on Siemens The emphasis for many companies is shifting towards flexibility the company was a licensee until is pursuing a similar path to and it is here that much development work is likely to concentrate in other companies in regard to flexible operation.
So while efficiency will remain a key parameter, New low NOx burners have recently been introduced, life-cycle advances in this area over the next 20 years look likely to be slower analysis is used to improve efficiency, increase power output or than they have been over the previous 20 years. GT26 KGE 1. H natural gas FT8 MDA OPA 1. OGT 2. Saturn 20 1. VPS1 0. GST Geothermal 50 and 60Hz applicable - - - -.
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Andrews, UK www. Energy Source www. Milan, Italy www. GensetRoundup Aggreko beats big freeze to power US footballs big game The Green Bay Packers and Pittsburgh broadcasting the event to a worldwide approximately medium-sized Steelers American football teams were television, internet and radio audience. As they say, everything area safe and not detracting from the and heating for the entire event, is bigger in Texas, and the sheer beauty of this amazing facility, said including the half-time show.
Following months of planning and one of Aggrekos largest supply of Aggreko had the support of its preparation, Aggrekos major events uninterrupted power and heating for a national network of more than 50 division powered everything from single event. Aggreko also provided several celebration sites and VIP equipment weeks prior to the game.
Services included 13 MW Dismantling required an additional two the international media compounds of generator power enough for weeks after the final whistle blew. Wrtsil receives MW Rolls-Royce diesel engine and equipment gensets to supply power orders from Timor-Leste to Tanzania, Madagascar Wrtsil has received an order to well as other related equipment.
The Rolls-Royce has been awarded for disposal due to the high cost of supply engines and other equipment Hera Power Plant is expected to be contracts to provide 11 Bergen maintenance. While demand for electricity to support headquarters in England. Timor-Leste, for which the notice to initially the power plants will run on economic and industrial growth from This generating set will use a nine- proceed is expected in the first half heavy fuel oil HFO , it is expected late onwards.
The contract awarded to Rolls- Engineering Ltd, a company Leste governments modernization second largest city in Tanzania.