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California tribal gaming leaders have publicly said there are ample signatures to place the referendum on the ballot, which would allow Native American casinos to open retail sportsbooks if approved by voters in The tribes hope sports betting, typically a low-margin offering, will be online betting california new way to attract in-person visits and sbr forum nba betting trends foot traffic to more lucrative gaming and entertainment options at their casinos, which are the largest revenue generator for many California tribes and their surrounding communities. Without online options, which make up 80 percent or more of total handle in mature markets such as New Jersey and Pennsylvaniaindustry stakeholders fear California will miss out on its overall sports betting potential. Native American gaming leaders have said they could be open to online gaming down the road, but for now, their priorities lie with in-person, retail support for their communities. The pending ballot measure is also the furthest California sports betting has advanced toward any type of legal wagering, a scenario that seems unlikely to change any time soon.

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This paper addresses two main questions: a Has European integration hindered the implementation of labour, financial and product market structural reforms? Using more granular reform measures, longer time windows and a larger sample of countries than previous studies, we confirm that the euro triggered product but neither labour nor financial market reforms.

Differently from previous studies, we find that: a the Single Market has similar effects to the euro, and b sectoral heterogeneity appears less important in explaining the economic impacts of reforms than country heterogeneity. Diese beiden Globalen Barometer werden in der ersten Woche jedes Kalendermonats berechnet.

In den letzten Monaten haben die Barometer schnell den wirtschaftli-chen Einbruch angezeigt, der mit der Ausbreitung des Coronavirus einherging. The political budget cycle PBC literature argues that governments expand deficits in election years. However, what happens when an economic downturn is expected? Will the government allow the deficit to expand even further, or will it resort to spending cuts and tax increases?

When voters expect less than full automatic stabilization, our model shows that opportunistic government behavior leads to smaller deficits, thereby responding procyclically to expected downturns. Panel data evidence for 74 democracies covering the period robustly supports the theoretical procyclicality prediction.

Moreover, expected downturns remain significant when other context-conditional PBC effects are included in the empirical analysis. Recent years have seen many attempts to combine expenditure-side estimates of U. We show how to incorporate information from multiple releases of noisy data to provide more precise estimates while avoiding some of the identifying assumptions required in earlier work. This relies on a new insight: using multiple data releases allows us to distinguish news and noise measurement errors in situations where a single vintage does not.

We find that a the data prefer averaging across multiple releases instead of discarding early releases in favor of later ones, and b that initial estimates of GDI are quite informative. Ever since the introduction of the Euro, there have been discussions about whether Europe constitutes an optimal currency area. The Great Recession and the European debt crisis have rekindled and intensified this debate.

Heterogeneous country experiences have led to questioning the rationale for a common monetary policy in the absence of a common fiscal framework to cushion macroeconomic shocks. In this paper, we examine whether the impact of typical macroeconomic shocks at the European Monetary Union EMU level varies across countries and sectors. We follow Furlanetto et al.

We calculate the impulse responses to these shocks at the country-sector level using local linear projections and propose a measure for business cycle synchronisation based on the similarity of the responses. We find varying degrees of heterogeneity across member countries' responses to common EMU shocks. Although the responses of economic sectors are themselves heterogeneous, different sector-decompositions across countries cannot explain the cross-country heterogeneity.

Contrary to e. Bayoumi and Eichengreen , , we identify Italy to be a core country. In line with recent literature, the level of heterogeneity was the most pronounced during the financial crisis compared to pre- and post-crisis periods. Die ab Mai weitestgehend stabile Zahl an Neuinfektionen und die daraus resultierende Lockerung der Schutzmassnahmen deuten auf eine konjunkturelle Wiederbelebung hin.

Wie bei den Kostengruppen sind die kantonalen Prognosen nun univariat, d. Die Unsicherheit bleibt aber aufgrund von Substitutionseffekten z. Trotz dieser Ungewissheit ist allerdings auf gesamtschweizerischer Ebene weder mit einem markanten Kostenschub noch einer drastischen Kostenreduktion zu rechnen. Senkung aller Kategorien. Die Regionen sind zwar unterschiedlich betroffen, aber es gibt kaum ein Land ohne CovidErkrankungen.

Inzwischen ist die Ansteckungsrate deutlich gesunken, so dass die Massnahmen nun sukzessive gelockert oder aufgehoben werden. Quartal erreicht haben. Das Ziel: Die Basisreproduktionszahl des Virus muss unter 1 fallen. Zudem ist die Krise aktuell noch kaum in den gesamtwirtschaftlichen Daten angekommen, auf welchen KonjunkturprognostikerInnen in normalen Zeiten ihre Prognosemodelle aufsetzen.

We portray determinants of social expenditure in OECD countries. Many theories have been proposed to describe why social expenditure has increased in industrialized countries. Determinants include globalization, political-institutional variables such as government ideology and electoral motives, demographic change and economic variables such as unemployment. Scholars have used social expenditure as the dependent variable in many empirical studies.

We employ extreme bounds analysis to examine robust predictors of social expenditure. Our sample includes 31 OECD countries over the period The results suggest that budget deficits, trade globalization and fractionalization of the party system were negatively associated with social expenditure. Aging, unemployment, social globalization, coalition governments and public debt were positively associated with social expenditure.

Moreover, social expenditure increased under left-wing governments when de facto trade globalization was pronounced. Results based on Bayesian model averaging corroborate the relationships found between banking crisis, de facto trade globalization, social globalization, legislative fractionalization, coalition governments, public debt and budget deficits on the one hand and social expenditure on the other.

We conclude that policymakers in individual countries use domestic measures to design social policies — globalization, aging, and business cycles notwithstanding. The calculation of these indicators comprises two main stages. The first consists of a variable selection procedure, in which a pre-set correlation threshold and the targeted leads to a reference series are used as selection criteria.

In the second stage, the selected variables are combined and transformed into the respective composite indicators, computed as the first partial least squares factor with the reference series as response variable. In the last vintage referred to in this paper December , out of transformations from variables tested in the first stage, are selected to enter into the coincident and into the leading composite indicator.

We analyse the characteristics of the two new indicators in a pseudo real-time setting and demonstrate that both are useful additions to the small number of indicators for the global business cycle published so far. We examine the effect of economic globalisation on income redistribution and hypothesise that it depends on ethnic fractionalisation.

In highly fractionalised countries, powerful ethnicities are able to extract globalisation-induced benefits, whereas their governments face substantial political obstacles when redistributing income between ethnic groups.

Using the newly constructed KOF Globalisation Index, we find supportive evidence for the interactive effect of ethnic fractionalisation and de jure financial globalisation on redistribution. In particular, the total effect of de jure financial globalisation on redistribution is negative in highly fractionalised countries. Governments in these countries are apparently not only reluctant to offset potential consequences stemming from de jure financial globalisation, but they even reduce redistribution to lower levels.

Keywords: Income redistribution; Globalisation; Ethnic fractionalisation. This paper studies the effects of globalisation on the income share of the middle class. Our findings suggest that globalisation, proxied by the KOF Economic Globalisation Index, reduces the income share of the middle class. When we distinguish between de facto and de jure globalisation, we find that only de facto measures have statistically significant effects on income shares and inequality measures.

Our results are robust for alternative definitions of the middle-class income share and hold for trade and financial globalisation. Economists and central bankers nowadays believe that forward guidance has become more important in a world in which key interest rates have hit their effective lower bounds ELB.

In case of the European Central Bank ECB , this should have increased the informational content of the introductory statements at the press conference following ECB policy meetings. We examine whether this form of ECB communication adds information to a shadow interest rate that summarises the overall policy stance as interpreted by financial markets. To measure communication, we use information based on ECB press releases distinguishing between topics like inflation, the real economy and monetary developments.

We also look at the effect of communication on consensus expectations about key macroeconomic variables. Communication of the ECB through its press releases also causes professional forecasters to change their outlook. Not only their growth forecasts are affected, also their expectations for M3 growth and inflation are.

Attempts to test this model empirically have been sparse, however, and with mixed results. These attempts so far relied on using — mostly cross-sectional — micro data from household surveys. For the first time in the literature we bring in macroeconomic panel data for 29 OECD countries over the period to test the model. In order to check the robustness of the results for the determinants of medical spending identified by the model, we include additional covariates that have been suggested as determinants for medical spending in an Extreme Bounds Analysis EBA framework.

The preferred model specifications including the robust covariates lend some support to the empirical relevance of the determinants of medical spending identified by the Grossman model, except for the relative medical price. In contrast with most previous work, our results suggest that all finance variables increase income inequality. The level of financial development conditions the impact of financial liberalization on inequality.

Also the quality of political institutions conditions the impact of financial liberalization on income inequality, in contrast to the quality of economic institutions. We introduce the revised version of the KOF Globalisation Index, a composite index measuring globalization for every country in the world along the economic, social and political dimension. The original index was introduced by Dreher and updated in Dreher et al. This second revision of the index distinguishes between de facto and de jure measures along the different dimensions of globalization.

We also disentangle trade and financial globalization within the economic dimension of globalization and use time-varying weighting of the variables. The new index is based on 43 instead of 23 variables in the previous version. We asked for barely half an download singular while Luca left his wonderful access and region, smashing in and out of the horizons and certainly rising the toughness of long videos with a trail or two.

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However, it is a complex process and requires a specialized group of computers. The buyer and seller can meet or connect online to settle for a deal to trade bitcoin. This method is quite prone to fraudulent and theft hence the traders need to be careful. Bitcoins are highly volatile and are prone to exhibit dramatic price movements.

Investment in bitcoin involves significant risk due to multiple reasons. Volatility and Unpredictable Price M ovements :. Bitcoin is one of the most volatile trading instruments in the world. It does not fall under the jurisdiction of any particular country. Hence, any regulatory news or any economic or non-economic event throughout the world can have a major impact on the price movement of bitcoins.

This makes it hard to predict or keep a track of the market as the prices can move at any time of the day dramatically. Price swings are also affected by considerable transactions by major holders. Bitcoins are virtual currency that only exists on the internet. It has no physical significance which makes it open for cyber thefts. The bitcoin wallet in an exchange or a personal device can be hacked to transfer the bitcoins.

If the key to a wallet is somehow lost or hacked, it is nearly impossible to retrieve the key or the lost bitcoins. The Japanese bitcoin exchange Mt. It is considered the largest bitcoin heist to date which brought down the value of bitcoins to lowest levels. Such incidents are still a common occurrence despite security measures.

Scams and frauds are quite common in the unregulated world of cryptocurrencies. Bitcoins are accepted as modes of payment by various firms and exchanges but some of the exchanges or the receivers can be fake. Once a bitcoin is transferred to a different wallet, it can neither be retrieved nor a complaint can be filed against the fraudster. This type of risk can be mitigated by selecting a trustworthy exchange and avoiding unknown entities accepting bitcoins.

Due to little or no regulation, Bitcoin investment involves significant risk and is not ideal for conservative investors. Cryptocurrencies were introduced nearly 10 years ago and are still developing into a more reliable medium of exchange. It cannot be said what values does it hold in the future but suitable individuals can take advantage of the price swings with caution and due diligence. Although, there is no ban on any form of buying and selling of bitcoins in South Africa.

The profits made with bitcoin trading are liable for taxation. Coinplug is a Bitcoin exchange based in South Korea. Customers can buy bitcoin by making a bank deposit to one of Coinplug's virtual bank accounts. You can use our Bitcoin ATM map to buy bitcoins with cash. Bitcoin ATMs can be a quick and easy way to buy bitcoins and they're also private. South Korea, like Japan, was very early to the Bitcoin party. It offers some of the most mature markets in the world for these types of assets, and has come a long way from even just 4 years ago in terms of the safety of the exchanges and the regulations in place.

One unattractive aspect of South Korea is that its exchanges' histories are rife with hacks, though many attribute this to the North Korean regime. To its credit, many of the exchanges that have experienced these hacks have done their best to make their customers whole after ward and South Korean regulators appear to move quickly in order to change regulations that either are not working or are stifling growth.

One of the easiest ways to buy Bitcoin in South Korea is through one of their many cryptocurrency exchanges, outlined above. There are several exchanges offering Bitcoin in South Korea, and you can easily select one based on your requirements and preferences using our guide. Different exchanges have different transaction fees, withdrawal limits, payment modes, and verification processes that need to be kept in mind before users select one.

Additionally, Bitcoin buyers need to keep in mind the fact that certain exchanges might require them to get a wallet of their own before they are able to buy the digital currency. Also, it is recommended to have a wallet of your own for security reasons, preferably a hardware wallet. These ATMs allow users to instantly purchase and sell cryptocurrency using cash, however most of them require at least a phone number, so they aren't totally private.

The Ledger Nano X is the newest crypto hardware wallet, and is very easy to use. Electrum is a Bitcoin-only wallet that has been around since It's easy to use, but has advanced features. In June of , South Korean authorities announced that over individual complaints were filed against a cloud mining company known as Futurenet based in of South Korea. It is believed that Futurenet was run by some individuals, and two of the founders left the country before prosecutors could file charges.

One remains in custody and was sentenced to two and a half years in prison. In actuality, Futurenet was just another ponzi scheme. In one of the stranger payback methods of an exchange hack we have ever seen, Yapizon promised to pay back those who lost some or all of their holdings by giving the customers Fei tokens a crypto made by the exchange.

Users could then trade the Fei tokens for equity in the Yapizon's holdings of Yahoo Japan. After this hack, Yapizon changed their name to Youbit in order to separate the brand from the incident. Unfortunately, it wouldn't end up mattering as another hack in December of the same year as the first hack would put the exchange completely under the water.

Many beleive the hack was an inside job since it occured while Upbit was transferring coins to its cold wallet. After the hack, Upbit shored up its defenses to prevent such a hack from happening again. The Upbit PR team had this to say. According to Korea's Yonhap News wire, in July of , hackers gained access to the laptop of a Bithumb employee and stole the names, email addresses, and phone numbers of 31, Bithumb customers.

Thankfully, it seems that no passwords were compromised. Unfortunately for Bithumb, they wouldn't get so lucky on their second hack, which occured in June of In most cases, XRP was the most stolen coin of the hack. This hack followed internal alarm where the exchange operators had noticed a serious uptick in unauthorized login attempts.

Bithumb eventually confirmed via twitter now deleted that it would reimburse customers using its own reserves. Charlie Shrems response to the tweet shown below:. This time, it was beleived to be an inside job, similar to Upbit attack that would occur later on in November of the same year. Thankfully for users, all of the stolen assets were the reserves of Bithumb. All client assets were held in cold storage at the time of the breach, and only hot wallets were affected.

In fact, this was one of the primary ways in which people in Korea used to buy Bitcoin around However, Bitcoin ATMs are now prohibited, so there aren't any left to buy from. While it is impossible to know for sure what percent of South Koreans own Bitcoin due to the pseudonymous nature of the currency , we do have some survey data regarding ownership rates per occupation.

Professionals in management roles seem to have the highest rates of ownership, followed by white collar office workers. Bitcoin is accepted at lots of stores and service providers all over South Korea. So many, in fact, that we couldn't possibly list them all here. However, you can find specific kinds of services and goods filterable on a map over at coinmap. However, since the Eurozone is not a country bit a federation of countries who all use the same currency, many would argue that South Korea actually provides the third largest amount of volume on Earth.

Any exchange with a Korean Won trading pair will allow you to sell your Bitcoin for fiat currency. Korbit has KRW trading pairs for many popular coins.

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UK markets open in 7 hours 1 minute. Bayoumi and Eichengreen , , we identify Italy to be a core country. In line with recent literature, the level of heterogeneity was the most pronounced during the financial crisis compared to pre- and post-crisis periods. Die ab Mai weitestgehend stabile Zahl an Neuinfektionen und die daraus resultierende Lockerung der Schutzmassnahmen deuten auf eine konjunkturelle Wiederbelebung hin.

Wie bei den Kostengruppen sind die kantonalen Prognosen nun univariat, d. Die Unsicherheit bleibt aber aufgrund von Substitutionseffekten z. Trotz dieser Ungewissheit ist allerdings auf gesamtschweizerischer Ebene weder mit einem markanten Kostenschub noch einer drastischen Kostenreduktion zu rechnen.

Senkung aller Kategorien. Die Regionen sind zwar unterschiedlich betroffen, aber es gibt kaum ein Land ohne CovidErkrankungen. Inzwischen ist die Ansteckungsrate deutlich gesunken, so dass die Massnahmen nun sukzessive gelockert oder aufgehoben werden. Quartal erreicht haben. Das Ziel: Die Basisreproduktionszahl des Virus muss unter 1 fallen.

Zudem ist die Krise aktuell noch kaum in den gesamtwirtschaftlichen Daten angekommen, auf welchen KonjunkturprognostikerInnen in normalen Zeiten ihre Prognosemodelle aufsetzen. We portray determinants of social expenditure in OECD countries. Many theories have been proposed to describe why social expenditure has increased in industrialized countries.

Determinants include globalization, political-institutional variables such as government ideology and electoral motives, demographic change and economic variables such as unemployment. Scholars have used social expenditure as the dependent variable in many empirical studies.

We employ extreme bounds analysis to examine robust predictors of social expenditure. Our sample includes 31 OECD countries over the period The results suggest that budget deficits, trade globalization and fractionalization of the party system were negatively associated with social expenditure. Aging, unemployment, social globalization, coalition governments and public debt were positively associated with social expenditure.

Moreover, social expenditure increased under left-wing governments when de facto trade globalization was pronounced. Results based on Bayesian model averaging corroborate the relationships found between banking crisis, de facto trade globalization, social globalization, legislative fractionalization, coalition governments, public debt and budget deficits on the one hand and social expenditure on the other.

We conclude that policymakers in individual countries use domestic measures to design social policies — globalization, aging, and business cycles notwithstanding. The calculation of these indicators comprises two main stages.

The first consists of a variable selection procedure, in which a pre-set correlation threshold and the targeted leads to a reference series are used as selection criteria. In the second stage, the selected variables are combined and transformed into the respective composite indicators, computed as the first partial least squares factor with the reference series as response variable.

In the last vintage referred to in this paper December , out of transformations from variables tested in the first stage, are selected to enter into the coincident and into the leading composite indicator. We analyse the characteristics of the two new indicators in a pseudo real-time setting and demonstrate that both are useful additions to the small number of indicators for the global business cycle published so far.

We examine the effect of economic globalisation on income redistribution and hypothesise that it depends on ethnic fractionalisation. In highly fractionalised countries, powerful ethnicities are able to extract globalisation-induced benefits, whereas their governments face substantial political obstacles when redistributing income between ethnic groups. Using the newly constructed KOF Globalisation Index, we find supportive evidence for the interactive effect of ethnic fractionalisation and de jure financial globalisation on redistribution.

In particular, the total effect of de jure financial globalisation on redistribution is negative in highly fractionalised countries. Governments in these countries are apparently not only reluctant to offset potential consequences stemming from de jure financial globalisation, but they even reduce redistribution to lower levels.

Keywords: Income redistribution; Globalisation; Ethnic fractionalisation. This paper studies the effects of globalisation on the income share of the middle class. Our findings suggest that globalisation, proxied by the KOF Economic Globalisation Index, reduces the income share of the middle class. When we distinguish between de facto and de jure globalisation, we find that only de facto measures have statistically significant effects on income shares and inequality measures.

Our results are robust for alternative definitions of the middle-class income share and hold for trade and financial globalisation. Economists and central bankers nowadays believe that forward guidance has become more important in a world in which key interest rates have hit their effective lower bounds ELB. In case of the European Central Bank ECB , this should have increased the informational content of the introductory statements at the press conference following ECB policy meetings.

We examine whether this form of ECB communication adds information to a shadow interest rate that summarises the overall policy stance as interpreted by financial markets. To measure communication, we use information based on ECB press releases distinguishing between topics like inflation, the real economy and monetary developments. We also look at the effect of communication on consensus expectations about key macroeconomic variables. Communication of the ECB through its press releases also causes professional forecasters to change their outlook.

Not only their growth forecasts are affected, also their expectations for M3 growth and inflation are. Attempts to test this model empirically have been sparse, however, and with mixed results. These attempts so far relied on using — mostly cross-sectional — micro data from household surveys.

For the first time in the literature we bring in macroeconomic panel data for 29 OECD countries over the period to test the model. In order to check the robustness of the results for the determinants of medical spending identified by the model, we include additional covariates that have been suggested as determinants for medical spending in an Extreme Bounds Analysis EBA framework. The preferred model specifications including the robust covariates lend some support to the empirical relevance of the determinants of medical spending identified by the Grossman model, except for the relative medical price.

In contrast with most previous work, our results suggest that all finance variables increase income inequality. The level of financial development conditions the impact of financial liberalization on inequality. Also the quality of political institutions conditions the impact of financial liberalization on income inequality, in contrast to the quality of economic institutions.

We introduce the revised version of the KOF Globalisation Index, a composite index measuring globalization for every country in the world along the economic, social and political dimension. The original index was introduced by Dreher and updated in Dreher et al.

This second revision of the index distinguishes between de facto and de jure measures along the different dimensions of globalization. We also disentangle trade and financial globalization within the economic dimension of globalization and use time-varying weighting of the variables.

The new index is based on 43 instead of 23 variables in the previous version. Following Dreher , we use the new index to examine the effect of globalization on economic growth. The results suggest that de facto and de jure globalization influence economic growth differently. Future research should use the new KOF Globalisation Index to re-examine other important consequences of globalization and why globalization was proceeding rapidly in some countries, such as South Korea, but less so in others.

We examine the relationship between capitalism and income inequality for a large sample of countries using an adjusted economic freedom index as proxy for capitalism and Gini coefficients based on gross-income as proxy for income inequality. Our results suggest that there is no robust relationship between economic freedom and income inequality. In addition, we analyze the relationship between income redistribution measured by the ratio of the income distribution resulting from market processes and the income distribution after redistribution and ethno-linguistic fractionalization.

We find that the impact of ethno-linguistic fractionalization on income redistribution is conditional on the level of economic freedom: countries that have a high degree of fractionalization have less income redistribution, while capitalist countries that have a low degree of fractionalization have more income distribution. Bailouts sponsored by the International Monetary Fund IMF are famous for their conditionality: in return for continued installments of desperately needed loans, governments must comply with austere policy changes.

Many have suggested, however, that politically important countries face rather weak stringency. Obstacles to testing this hypothesis include finding a measure of political importance that is not plagued by endogeneity and obtaining data on IMF conditionality. We propose to measure political importance using temporary membership on the United Nations Security Council and analyze a newly available dataset on the level of conditionality attached to a maximum of IMF arrangements with countries over the to period.

We find a negative relationship: Security Council members receive about 30 percent fewer conditions. This suggests that the major shareholders of the IMF trade softer conditionality in return for political influence over the Security Council. From a theoretical perspective, the output gap is probably the most comprehensive an convincing concept to describe the cyclical position of an economy.

Unfortunately, fo practical purposes, the concept depends on the determination of potential output, which is a inherently unobservable variable. In this paper, we examine whether the real-time estimates o the output gap as published by the OECD can be improved by referring to measures o physical capital capacity utilisation from business tendency surveys.

These data relate directly to the stress on the current capacity to produce goods and services and are not revised. Our real-time panel data set comprises 22 countries at an annual frequency with data vintages from to We show that the real-time output gaps are informationally inefficient in the sense that survey data available in real time can help produce estimates that are significantly closer to later releases of output gap estimates.

We investigate whether elected members of the United Nations Security Council receive favorable treatment from the International Monetary Fund IMF , analyzing panel data on the level of conditionality attached to a maximum of IMF arrangements with countries over the period of to We find a negative relationship: Security Council members receive about 30 percent fewer conditions attached to the loans that they receive from the IMF.

We conclude that conditionality is softer for these countries because the major shareholders of the IMF desire influence over the Security Council. Dezember erschienen. Oktober

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